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D. Mackintosh's Ethnological Observations. 211 

no land at all, but only water, water, water everywhere — 
water in place of land, the non-existence of the islands is 
considered to be proved. 

Now it cannot be said that each and all of the Negrito areas 
has been disposed of in the satisfactory way that our imaginary 
islands have been abolished. It can only be said, that a close 
approximation to their abolition has been effected. Sefore it 
can be made absolute, Timor and Floris must be explored 
minutely; and Freycinet's and Arago's account of the Ombayans 
be corrected. The notion, however, that the Alfurs of the 
Moluccas are in any degree Negrito, or that the term Hara- 
fura, can with any ethnological propriety be connected with 
the adjective black, may fairly be said to have received its 

Individually, I believe that the whole doctrine of the exist- 
ence of anything deserving the name of Negro or Negrito to 
the west of New Guinea is destined to die out — and that it 
will end in respect to the populations that come within the 
range of the present investigation with the simple fact, that 
the men and women of Floris and parts of Timor are darker 
than those of Java and Sumatra, in the way that a Portu- 
guese is darker than a Frenchman. The so called blacks of 
the Andaman Islands, the Malayan Peninsula, and the Philip- 
pines, may form the subject of another paper. So may the 
question which has perhaps already suggested itself to some 
of my hearers, viz : — the prior existence of blacks within 
the area just investigated ; the prior existence of them being 
perfectly compatible with their present non-appearance. I 
do not believe in it. Still, it is a view of the question which 
should be entertained. A whole class should not be erased 
from the system of Ethnology without a full consideration of 
all the questions connected with it. 

XVII. — Results of Ethnological Observations made during the 
last Ten Years in England and Wales. By D. Mackintosh, 
F.G.S., F.E.S. 

I am very willing to admit the extreme difficulty of classifying 
the inhabitants of a country, such as England, where so much 
crossing has occurred. But the experience of the practical 
ethnologist is similar to that of the inductive geologist. The 
more he travels, the more he becomes alive to the existence of 
local peculiarities. It is easy to conceive that a hurried survey 
may leave the impression that systematic arrangement is im- 
possible; but a series of successive residences in various 


212 D. Mackintosh's Ethnological Observations. 

localities will, I believe, convince the ethnologist that the 
interblending of races has been greatly overrated. The very 
fact that different dialects still linger in different parts of Eng- 
land, and that the uneducated inhabitants of one county are 
unintelligible to those of another county, is a proof that races 
have not become so intermixed as to defy classification. But as 
the glossology of England has already been well investigated, I 
shall majnly confine attention in this paper to those physical 
peculiarities, which if not positively unalterable, are at least 
much more enduring than language. A systematic series of 
observations will render it very difficult for a traveller to resist 
the impression that the people of one district differ from those 
of another in the form of the head and features, figure of body, 
temperament, and complexion ; and a little practice will enable 
him to make out a predominating type* in a particular locality 
or ethnographical area. The liability to error does not consist 
in tracing the existence of such a type, but in coupling it with 
an ancient historical name ; in calling it Gaelic, Cymbrian, 
Belgic, Jutian, Frisian, Saxon, Danish, or Norse. These and 
other historical names will be used in this paper as a means of 
convenient classification, and not as dogmatically implying that 
the types so called are certainly descended from the races men- 
tioned in history; and I shall feel greatly indebted to any 
fellow of this society who may be able to correct me on this 

The order I shall adopt in this paper will be geographical 
rather than historical ; and commencing with the south-east 
coast of England, the first great ethnological question which 
presents itself is the 

Distinction between Jutes, Frisians, and Saxons. The eth- 
nologist cannot make much progress in the work of classifica- 
tion without perceiving the necessity of making a distinction 
between these three races — -a necessity now beginning to be felt 
by eminent antiquarians. T have been at great pains to try to 
make out the physical characteristics of the Saxons of English 
history. To say that the swarms of emigrants who came into 
England under Saxon leaders were Saxons in the ethnological 
sense of the term would be about as correct as to assert that the 
Irish and Scotch [Erse-Scandinavian ?] soldiers who fought in 
the Crimea under English generals were English. The same 
remark applies more or less to the difficulty of making out the 
Saxon form of head from the skulls found in so-called Saxon 
burial-grounds. From the results of many inquiries made of 

* The word type is here used to denote a certain combination of physical and 
mental peculiarities. 

D. Mackintosh's Ethnological Observations. 213 

intelligent Germans and English ladies (for I find ladies keen 
practical ethnologists, with the advantage of not being theore- 
tically prejudiced) and gentlemen who have travelled in Ger- 
many — results considered in connection with traditions and 
impressions prevalent in the more historically Saxon districts of 
England, I have been led to suppose the following as Saxon 
characteristics : — light brown or flaxen hair, rather broad semi- 
circular forehead, nearly semicircular eyebrows, blue or bluish 
grey and prominent eyes, nearly straight nose of moderate 
length, rather short broad face [the term broad-faced Saxon is 
common on the continent] low cheek bones, excessively regular 
features, flat ears, head of a form between a short parallelo- 
gram and a round, figure smooth and free from projections, 
fingers, hands, arms and legs short, more or less tendency to 
obesity, especially in the epigastric region, in extreme cases 
giving rise to what is provincially called a corporation, mode- 
rate stature. According to the phrenological system (the con- 
venience of which as a means of minutely describing the form 
of the head is acknowledged in the Brit. Ass. Manual of Eth- 
nological Inquiry), moderate or rather small perceptive organs, 
small eventuality and individuality, large comparison, mode- 
rate casuality, small wit, large benevolence, small veneration 
and hope, large firmness and conscientiousness, small secretive- 
ness, small self-esteem and concentration, small adhesiveness. 
The mental peculiarities, which I have found to accompany 
the physical above stated, and which agree in the main with 
those historically assigned to the Saxon, and believed to charac- 
terize the Saxon in Germany and England, are the following : — 
slowness of perception (if asked to hold up the right hand will 
probably hold up the left till he has time to consider which is 
the right and which the left) more comprehensive than ana- 
lytical, want of sanguine anticipation, union of self-reliance 
with meekness and absence of ambition, simple hearted and 
truthful, more general love than particular attachment, adapted 
to occupations in general rather than to one in particular, 
a disposition for pursuits admitting of variety ; if he emigrates 
he can soon forget old associations and adapt himself to new 

The Saxon according to the foregoing characteristics is not a 
predominating inhabitant of Kent, He is found in the interior 
of the Isle of Thanet (on the coast dark complexions are most 
prevalent) and in the neighbourhood of Sandwich. The Saxon 
sword and battle axe found by the late Mr. Kolfe in Ozengel 
churchyard, I should regard as real Saxon, and not Jutian or 

On the south coast of Kent a large proportion of the inhabi- 

214 D. Mackintosh's Ethnological Observations. 

tants probably resemble those on the opposite shore of the 
English channel. On the north coast and scattered through 
the interior a type to which I shall venture to apply the term 
Frisian is very common. 

This face is very much English, certainly as much so as the 
Saxon face ; and linguistic investigations would seem to point 
to the conclusion that England has been largely colonized from 

The Frisian type is characterized by a very fair complexion, 
oval countenance, rather prominent features, narrow head, long 
neck, narrow shoulders and chest, the broadest part of the 
frame being where the legs join the body, rather small percep- 
tive and reflective faculties, little reverence and great firmness, 
giving rise to self-complacency and independence of authority. 

In the interior of Kent, especially about Tonbridge, the pre- 
dominating type is distinctly marked, and I think may be 
safely called Jutian. It is the same as that prevailing in the 
eastern part of the Isle of Wight ; and Mr. Roach Smith has 
lately found that the sepulchral remains of some parts of Kent 
and the Isle of Wight are identical. I believe this eminent 
antiquarian is now convinced of the necessity for making a 
distinction between Jute and Saxon. 

The Jutian characteristics, which are to be met with not only 
in Kent, but in many parts along the east coast of England 
and Scotland, may be stated as follows : — very convex profile, 
narrow face, head narrow, rather elongated, and very much 
rounded off" at the sides, very long neck, narrow shoulders and 
chest, springing gait, frequently tall, especially in the Isle of 
Wight, large perceptive and rather small reflective faculties, 
adaptation to the practical affairs of life accompanying deficient 
imagination. In reference to the narrow shoulders of the Jute 
and Frisian I may direct attention to the statement made by 
Polwhele in his History of Cornwall, to the effect that one 
thousand Cornishmen, in course of being drilled at Chatham, 
about the time of the French revolution, took up considerably 
more ground than the same number of Kent men ; and I may 
likewise mention that the late venerable Archdeacon Williams 
informed me that he was once present in a regiment in Cardi- 
ganshire when it was observed that 1,000 Welshmen required 
as much ground as 1,200 midland county men. 

Before leaving Kent I may remark that the termination ing 
is the most common in the central districts, and that it is like- 
wise the most prevalent termination of the names of places in 

In Sussex the majority of the inhabitants would appear to 
belong to two races, the Saxon as before described, and a race 

D. Mackintosh's Ethnological Observations. 215 

with harder and more angular features, to which perhaps the 
term Belgic may be applied. The inhabitants belonging to 
the last mentioned race are generally extreme Calvinists in 
religion, many of them being followers of Mr. Huntington, 
S. S. (sinner saved) of Tenterden ; and throughout Sussex 
there is a greater or less tendency to fatalism, which is fre- 
quently found implied in epitaphs. The following epitaph, 
which may be read in Old Brighton churchyard, is similar to 
many occurring in different parts of the county : — 

" His fate was hard, 'twas God's decree 
He should he drownded in the sea." 

The parts of Sussex and the neighbourhood where the Saxon 
type may be found in its greatest purity are, an area extending 
from East Grinstead to Hastings, of considerable breadth, and 
embracing the south-western portion of the Weald of Kent ; 
and the flat district situated between Chichester and the sea. 
So far as the latter district is concerned, the Saxon of modern 
ethnology may be regarded as identical with the Saxon of 
ancient history. The principal exceptions to the prevalence of 
the Saxon type in the above localities are to be found in the 
towns where manufactures of various kinds were introduced by 
Flemings in the 16th and 17th centuries. 

In Portsmouth and the neighbourhood it is very difficult to 
classify the inhabitants. Between Southampton and Salisbury 
the Saxon type is very common, and the Saxon mead is still a 
common beverage. In Salisbury, on a market day, many 
Saxons may be seen. In the middle and north of Hampshire 
the people in general belong to a dark complexioned race very 
different from any to be met with in other parts of England. 
I have heard the opinion expressed that they are Wendes or a 
Belgic tribe of Wendish extraction. But whether this opinion 
has arisen from the old name of Winchester, Venta Belgarum, 
or has had a better foundation, I shall not pretend to say. It 
is to be regretted that the bones in the mortuary chests of 
Winchester Cathedral should have been so displaced and 
altered from their original relative juxtaposition as to render 
them of little service to ethnology. But where the interests of 
physical science have suffered, a moral lesson has been taught ; 
for the Dane and the Saxon, at one time " sworn enemies," 
now lie in the same coffin, thus adding force to the simple lines 
of the Scotch paraphrase : — 

" And there the peaceful ashes mix 
Of those who once were foes." 

In the north-west of Wiltshire and the west of Berkshire the 
Saxon Hock-tide sports are still kept up ; and in the White 
Horse Valley the Saxon type is very prevalent. 

216 D. Mackintosh's Ethnological Observations. 

Returning towards the south coast we arrive at the New 
Forest, inhabited by a mixture of races which almost defy 
classification, the complexion in general being dark. Mr. 
Purkis, bookseller, Wimborne-Minster, and an innkeeper in 
the neighbourhood, are the only remaining lineal descendants 
of the charcoal burner who conveyed the body of William 
Rufus to Winchester. 

The inhabitants of Dorsetshire, with comparatively few ex- 
ceptions, may be included under Saxons and Gaels. These 
two races may be found side by side even in the same family, 
as if a law existed preventing their amalgamation. But it may 
here be necessary to give a detailed statement of what I think 
may now be safely regarded as the Gaelic peculiarities. In 
Connaught, Ireland, they appear in their most exaggerated 
form. The description of a Scotch medical gentleman who had 
resided among them, namely, " By painting them black you 
can make negroes of them," is not exactly correct, but the 
bulging forward of the lower part of the face, and recession of 
the forehead, are very much in the style of the negro profile. 

Gaels. Physical characteristics : — head elongated backwards, 
large verberation, firmness, self-esteem, combativeness, con- 
centrativeness, and adhesiveness, small benevolence and caus- 
ality, large perceptive organs, projecting ears, oblique eyebrows, 
low nose, in most sub-varieties turned up at the point, great 
distance between the nose and mouth, projecting mouth and 
jaws, retreating chin, in some of the Irish sub-varieties, no 
chin, complexion and stature various. 

Mental characteristics: — quickness of perception, want of 
reasoning power, tendency to reverence authority, adap- 
tation to monotonous occupations such as reaping, at one 
time very lively, at another very melancholy, with a ten- 
dency to convert the events of life, from births to funerals, 
into scenic entertainments, the tragedy and comedy frequently 
following each other in quick succession, extreme attachment 
and sociability. The Gaelic maxims are " one and all," "union 
is strength," " I care for every body, yes indeed I do, and I 
hope every body cares for me." The state of society in a 
Gaelic country may be compared to an arch, if one stone falls, 
the whole tumbles to the ground. 

The mental peculiarities above stated appear under a modi- 
fied form in Dorsetshire, but the physical are strongly marked. 

Dorsetshire is remarkable for its Roman burial grounds. 
Mr. Medhurst, of Weymouth, has collected several hundred 
Roman skulls, and on examining a number of these skulls I 
found that in most instances the chin projected very visibly 
forwards, similar to the representations of effigies on Roman 
coins furnished in Mr. Akermann's celebrated work. 

D. Mackintosh's Ethnological Observations. 217 

The majority of the inhabitants of the Isle of Portland ex- 
hibit distinct and uniform characteristics, consisting of tall and 
loosely made frame, square shoulders, hobbling gait, long face, 
high nose, among the women teeth frequently projecting, a 
strong antipathy to the " English," and a constant tendency to 
litigation with the inhabitants of the mainland, and with govern- 
ment, in religion chiefly Wesleyans, derivation probably Scan- 
dinavian, but not exactly Danish. 

Saxons, Gaels, and Flemings, form the principal part of the 
population of Somerset and Devon. In Exeter, and some other 
towns in Devon, another type is very conspicuous, which for 
want of a better name may be called Roman, and which, if not 
of Roman derivation is probably Moorish, or one of the Iber- 
ian sub-varieties. At a numerously attended performance of 
the " Elijah" in the Subscription Rooms, Exeter, some years 
ago, I, in company with an eminent medical gentleman, very 
closely observed the physiognomies of the ladies who were 
present. Nearly one half presented a straight profile, good 
forehead, long nose, thin lips, prominent chin, and very dark 

The inhabitants of Plymouth and Devonport differ very 
much from one another both physically and mentally, the first 
being apparently of Saxon, Dutch, or Flemish derivation, the 
latter chiefly Cornish. 

In Cornwall the people are not nearly so homogeneous as is 
commonly supposed. The majority are Gaels, others appa- 
rently Cymbrian similar to the Welsh, the rest chiefly of Iberian 
or Spanish descent. The termination o, as in Pasco, Jago, etc., 
is very common in the names of persons. The Cornish differ 
from the "Welsh in their being chiefly Armenians, that is, Wes- 
leyans. A tendency to display, accompanying a loftiness of 
imagination, with a sensitiveness to praise or censure, may be 
reckoned among their mental characteristics. The Cornish 
frequently present instances of a combination of poetic and 
mechanical talent, and at the collegiate and other schools of 
the west of England Cornish boys generally beat the shire boys 
in mathematics. 

In North Devon, particularly on the borders of Exmoor, the 
Gaelic type is almost as strikingly marked as in Ireland. I 
once heard a number of Exmoor Gaelic women converse in 
Barnstable market. They spoke with so much rapidity and 
variety of inflexion that little musical skill would have been 
sufficient to convert their conversation into an Irish jig. 

I would now cross over into the Principality. On making 
an ethnological tour in South Wales several years ago, I was 
surprised to find a considerable diversity of types ; and I have 

218 D. Mackintosh's Ethnological Observations. 

sometimes been led to doubt whether the remoter districts of 
our island are really the most favourable for ethnographical 
research. Is it not possible that the more open parts of Eng- 
land or the great military highways, may have experienced a 
process of sanguinary denudation (to use a geological phrase) 
by which many tribes were swept away, while the remote 
nooks and corners became the refuge of a heterogeneous mix- 
ture of races ? But to return to South Wales, the great mass 
of the rural population do not differ materially from what may 
be seen in many parts of England, which corroborates the 
opinion of some ethnologists who believe that the bulk of the 
English peasantry are British and not Teutonic. On the coast 
of South Wales the people are said to resemble those of Brit- 
tany, if we except Pembroke and the Peninsula of Gower. I 
am not able to speak of Pembrokeshire from personal observa- 
tion. In Gower the people are either Flemings or Scandina- 
vians. Generally speaking they have ruddy complexions, with 
sandy hair, and differ from the Welsh in being fond of the sea. 
One Gower boy, I have been told, is worth twenty Welsh boys 
as a sailor. The Celts in general are bad sailors and good 
soldiers. The Celt of the Isle of Skye would rather starve 
than venture to catch fish. Some Teutonic tribes, more espe- 
cially the Norsemen, find their most congenial home on the 
" wave." In Wales the people of different counties differ not 
only in dialect, but physically and mentally. In Caermar- 
thenshire many of the inhabitants are tall and slender, and a 
considerable proportion of the young men manifest an early 
ambition to become preachers. In the inland district called 
Cynyl Gaio there is a colony of red-haired, tall, robust men, 
who formerly proved the terror of the neighbouring tribes. In 
the ironworks and mines of Glamorganshire the men who have 
emigrated from different counties frequently show an antipathy 
to one another, and sometimes fight, as if belonging to separate 
nations. The Cardi or Cardiganshire men are, I believe, the 
most unpopular in the mining districts. 

Cymbrians. In the interior of South Wales the inhabitants 
present the various gradations of physiognomy between Gaels 
and what I shall venture to call Cymbrians, or dominant Welsh. 
The Gaelic peculiarities have already been stated. The Cym- 
brian has a broad head, large secretiveness, full forehead, large 
causality, sunk half-closed eyes, nose projecting at the point, 
broad face in the region of the cheek bones, sudden tapering 
off under the cheek bones, narrow chin, very broad shoulders 
and chest, stature rather under the middle size, dark brown 

In mental character he is more analytical than inductive, 

D. Mackintosh's Ethnological Observations. 219 

more critical than comprehensive, with a tendency to look 
towards the past and exercise little confidence in the future. 
The Cymbrian is naturally an antiquarian. He is ethnologi- 
cally, or by race, an ethnologist. 

The real Welsh Cymbrian is very musical ; but the music 
characteristic of the race must be distinguished from the Gaelic 
melodies in § time, which are very common in Wales. Cym- 
brian music is either in £ time, with a frequency of sudden 
stops and pathetic slurs, or in % time, of which an example is 
furnished by the tune called Jenny Jones. A Welsh minister 
generally intones his discourses. The following is a customary 
preaching tune in North Wales. Key, G minor ; D dd, dddd, 
CBAG, G, g ab, BA, abc, BA, AD, D. The Welsh are very 
fond of Handel, and " Angels ever bright and fair" may fre- 
quently be heard whistled by the same class of boys who in 
England would prefer " Pop goes the Weasel." The Welsh 
are extreme Calvinists in religion ; and the relative proportion 
of persons who have sittings in places of worship in Wales and 
London may be estimated at about 6 to 1, if I rightly under- 
stand the last census. 

In North Wales a large proportion of the inhabitants are tall, 
and are regarded by some historians as of Belgic derivation. 

The people of Lancashire are not easily classified. A con- 
siderable proportion are evidently Cymbrians and Scandina- 
vians ; but the most prominent types cannot, I think, be safely 
coupled with any historical names, if indeed, we except the 
Brigantes. In Cumberland, the inhabitants may be divided 
into Cymbrian and Norse — the latter presenting at least two 
sub-varieties ; first, the comparatively flat face with full fore- 
head, and second, the prominent face with rather retreating 
forehead. Sandy hair, and ruddy complexions, with blue or 
bluish-grey eyes are very common ; and the stature of both 
men and women is far above the average of England. Their 
prevailing temperament is sanguine, and a tendency to litiga- 
tion may be reckoned among their mental peculiarities. 

My observations in the North-western and midland districts 
of England have been comparatively limited j but so far as they 
have extended, they have seemed to corroborate the remarks 
of Worsaae, the Danish traveller. 

I believe that Danes are not nearly so common in Nor- 
thumberland as is commonly supposed, the mass of the peo- 
ple being apparently British. In the county of Durham, the 
existence of a tall and fair race, not Scandinavian, and appa- 
rently superimposed on the British population, would lead one 
to suppose that there is an Anglian type, distinct from Saxon, 
and probably standing midway between Saxon and Dane. 

220 D. Mackintosh's Ethnological Observations. 

This type, the detailed characteristics of which I am not pre- 
pared to state, is found not only in Durham, but in the south- 
east of Scotland in the district- marked German in Dr. Kombst's 
map, and scattered over the east-central districts of England. 

Danes. The Dane of East Yorkshire and more especially 
of Lincolnshire presents unmistakeable peculiarities. Lincoln- 
shire is pre-eminently Danish. To this conclusion I have been 
led, not only from minute personal observations, but from cor- 
respondence with that eminent philosophical novelist, Sir 
Edward Bulwer Lytton, whose works abound with the most 
valuable ethnological allusions and delineations. I need not 
refer to the termination by in the names of places, nor to family 
names which have continued unaltered since the time of the 
Scandinavian invasions, as proofs of the Danish derivation of 
the inhabitants of Lincolnshire. Their physical and mental 
characteristics reveal their origin. The Danish type in Lin- 
colnshire would appear to present two subvarieties, the convex 
profiled and prominent mouthed Dane, and the sunk-mouthed 
and prominent chinned Dane, the first probably a connecting 
link with the Jute, the latter perhaps a connecting link with the 
higher Norwegian type, allied to what is commonly called 
Norman. Both have high cheek bones, a sinking in above the 
cheek bones at the sides of the forehead, long face and high 
nose, ruddy complexion, red or sandy hair, or failing the hair, 
red or sandy whiskers. The skull is rather narrow and elon- 
gated, with very large perceptive organs, especially locality, 
rather large comparison, moderate causality, rather large be- 
nevolence and veneration, very large hope, very large firmness, 
large self-esteem, etc. Temperament sanguine. Tall and 
rather loosely made figure, long legs and arms. 

Mental characteristics .-—^tendency to energetic exertion, 
which if not directed to good will find vent in mischief, liabi- 
lity to get into hot water, good masters but bad servants, great 
ambition, fond of good living and strong drink. The Danish 
character presents a combination of great faults and great 
virtues, unlike some races which exhibit neither the one nor 
the other. 

Proceeding in a southerly direction we find a considerable 
proportion of the inhabitants of the east of England presenting 
the Dutch physical and mental peculiarities, a fact easily 
accounted for on historical grounds. But the more influential 
inhabitants of Norfolk and the neighbourhood are Danes. In 
Cambridgeshire and the north-west of Essex there would 
appear to be many Saxons, but in the east and south-east of 
Essex the mass of the people show very few signs of Teutonic 
origin. I should regard them as either of British or French- 

D. Mackintosh's Ethnological Observations 221 

Flemish derivation. I have frequently heard it asserted that 
the smallest heads in England are to be found in Essex, but I 
have not had an opportunity of verifying this assertion by 
personal observation. 

With regard to London, at which, after making the circuit 
of South Britain, I have now arrived, a separate paper might 
be written on the extent to which races have preserved their 
peculiarities ; but as I have already, I fear, trespassed too long 
on your attention, I would conclude by remarking that as in 
geology so in ethnology, the more one investigates the more is 
the necessity for subdivision perceived ; and as in geology the 
progress of inquiry reveals order, law, and system, where 
before chance was supposed to prevail, so in ethnology, the 
extension of observation confirms the belief that nothing has 
sprung up in a random manner, that no combination of fea- 
tures or assemblage of faculties, no relative form or arrange- 
ment of physical or moral peculiarities has accidently arisen ; 
but that, on the contrary, fixed principles pervade every inter- 
stice of the organic as well as inorganic worlds, principles of 
which all the diversities of countenance, figure, and mental 
character we discover among men are but the embodiments. 
An ethnological survey of England and Wales discloses no in- 
dication of types becoming permanently modified through the 
influence of climate and habit, for everywhere we find the 
most diverse peculiarities under the same circumstances, and 
the most striking uniformity of type under the most dissimilar 
conditions ; and such a result accords with the discovery of 
Professor Rask, of Stockholm, that the form of Scandinavian 
skulls was precisely the same 2,000 years ago, as at the present 
day. The most modern aspect of ethnology does not seem to 
favour the doctrine that one organic form has gradually arisen 
out of another during the indefinite lapse of ages without the 
intervention of a creative act, or at least a creational law. That 
a law admitting of, or regulating forces by which new species 
replace those which have died out, and that these new species 
may appear on the stage of time synchronously with the cir- 
cumstances to which they are adapted, can easily be conceived ; 
but that this law can embrace a process of progressive improve- 
ment to which no limit can be assigned, as some naturalists 
suppose, seems to be little short of a contradiction in terms. 
Does it not become the geologists and ethnologists of the 
present day to consider whether a law can possibly exist, the 
end of which is not seen from the beginning, and whether 
the general analogy of time and space warrants the supposition 
that any deviations from uniformity can ever take place which 
are not cyclically compensated ?